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Motifs and Architecure

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Classical architectural details, such as columns, pilasters, balusters, dentil moldings, and quoins, appear in architecture, interiors, and furniture throughout the period. In Queen Anne furniture, motifs include shells and acanthus leaves. Early Georgian furniture may display swags, urns, eagles, cabochons, lion masks, satyr masks, and/or foliage. Motifs in furniture and interiors after mid-century influenced by Rococo and Gothic  are ribbons, leaves, shells, foliage, birds, pointed arches, quatrefoils, and tracery. Chinoiserie and Chinese motifs include faux bamboo, Oriental figures, and pagodas.

Neo-Palladian is England’s national style in the first half of the 18th century.  the style defines numerous country houses, smaller dwellings, and town-houses. Forms and elements draw from, but do not copy, Vitruvius, Palladio, or Inigo Jones. Symmetrical, geometric, and relatively plain, forms are simple; outlines are uncomplicated. Rules, which come from nature, antiquity, or the Renaissance, are closely observed, particularly for proportions. Distinctive are the undecorated walls or spaces around windows and the decorative architectural features that emphasize them. Beginning in the 1730s, a few structures are built or remodeled in a style that becomes known as Gothick or Gothic Revival. The most influential is Strawberry Hill, home of Sir Horace Walpole.

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Floor Plans. Large and small houses have either double-pile plans with halls running lengthwise or adapted Palladian plans. Symmetry, the sequences of spaces, and the alignment of doors and windows are important planning considerations. 

The most important rooms are on the ground and first floors and are emphasized by their size and treatment on the exterior. As before, plans are organized around the grand salon, entrance hall, and suites of apartments. The stair hall and drawing room or saloon are usually on the main axis, flanked by other public rooms including a lavishly decorated dining room. 

Materials. Structures are of brick, local stone, or stucco. Early in the century, brick usually is red, but later its color varies from brown to gray, white, or cream. In the 1720s, façades begin to be stuccoed. Wood and metal portions of façades, including sashes, sash frames, shutters, doors, and door cases, are painted in bold colors whose variety and hue depend on the owner’s wealth. Less affluent homeowners primarily use greens, while the wealthy can choose off-whites, browns, grays, yellows, blues, and greens. Doors are a dark color, such as green, black, or red-brown, with a light-colored door case of wood or stone. Shutters, and sometimes sashes, are painted a dark color.

Façades. Façades are distinctive, having a temple front or pedimented portico at the center, Venetian or Palladian windows, and plain walls. Designers generally group windows, elements within porticoes, and other details in threes.  
 
Floors vary in size; first floors are the largest because they house the most important and public rooms. Stringcourses separate stories, and quoins delineate corners.
 
Windows and Doors: Most windows have uncomplicated surrounds, but some have pediments, quoins, or arched tops. Venetian or Palladian windows may be used singly or in sequences with some set within relieving arches as at Chiswick House.
 
Roofs. Neo-Palladian roofs are low-pitched hipped or flat with balustrades. Centers or ends of compositions sometimes are domed. Gothic-style roofs pitch steeply and may have battlemented parapets and towers with conical roofs.
 
 
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Written by callawayinteriordesign

May 30, 2012 at 12:55 am

Posted in Uncategorized

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